Communication & langages

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Communication & langages (2009), 2009:139-140 NecPlus
Copyright © Nec Plus 2009
doi:10.4074/S0336150009003123

Abstract

Abstracts


Le regard qui traumatisa la télévision

JEAN-STÉPHANE CARNEL

This study shows how news coverage are produced and circulated and how these images are transformed into news report which are broadcasted and presented on television. An analysis of the news coverage of a young Colombian girl’s agony in 1985 examplifies how various –and sometimes conflicting– symbolic systems are produced, according to which contexts are summoned to read them. The report pointed to something different than what the images showed and called upon three different symbolic values and meanings at least: the girl’s courage, poverty kills, and media voyeurism. The topic of these images in itself was not sufficient to create these symbolic values but this coverage broke many of the “codes” of TV news broadcasting and report production, and therefore did not result in an univocal interpretation.

Keywords: Television news, Report, Semio-pragmatics, Media symbol, News writting, Looking At Camera, Omayra Sanchez

L’appropriation des podcasts par les médias traditionnels : quels enjeux pour la production de contenus médiatiques ?

CAMILLE BRACHET

The latest evolution of media, news, telecom, culture and entertainement industries has stimulated production, development and transformation of media content. Internet has allowed end-users to create an array of added objects such as blog, audioblog, podcast which made podcasting popular. This analysis is focused on the overall impact of the widespread dissemination of podcast on the media industry and how audiovisual production has been affected. There is a major drive for mass media (radio, television, newspaper) to strive to add these emerging products into their range of offers and to assess how they would blend into their business model.

Keywords: Media, Radio, Internet, Podcast, Intermedia, Media metamorphosis, Media industry, Culture

Bibliothèques numériques : la nécessaire médiation

FABRICE PAPY ET CORINNE LEBLOND

The widespread use of the term “digital library” encompasses too wide a variety of systems and developments to be meaningful. This single term can not precisely account for the various prerequisites and guidelines of these systems. An analysis of how major academic digital document management systems have been implemented and how their set up was perceived points to common features. A thorough investigation of the institutional, ideological and technological environment in which current projects are rolled out unveils an everlasting pattern. Use and mediation are underestimated because of a belief in sole technological efficiency. Alternative approaches to this stubborn determinism are presented for a real work on how to reinvent documentary mediation.

Keywords: Digital Library, Information society, Disintermediation, Documentary mediation, Use

Pour une conception centrée-utilisateurs des bibliothèques numériques

JÉRÔME DINET

This survey is a study of the actual behaviours of Digital Libraries (DL) end-users and their main difficulties to interact with them. Methodologies to assess end-users’ needs and aims are analyzed and discussed. The favoured approach values investigation of the real needs and behaviours of the end-users through empirical and experimental studies. The once leitmotiv of the researchers used to be “if we build it, they will come”. This approach has evolved towards understanding and comprehending end-users’ real needs and behaviours in order to create Digital Libraries which are both relevant, useful and usable.

Keywords: Digital Library, Needs, End-user, Psychology, Interaction

Les portails d’information du CNRS

FRANÇOISE DROUARD, SOPHIE PETITJEAN ET JOACHIM SCHÖPFEL

This presentation of the scientific information portals of the French public research organization CNRS, which have been implemented by the Institute for Scientific and Technical Information INIST since 1999, is divided into three sections: history, mission and features; production, release and tailorisation to the needs of the scientific communities; ongoing and future development. Critical items of the creation and management of information portals are discussed and analysed: definition of the scientific community, digital rights management, copyright agreement with publishers, assessment of how features match use. This last item is of particular interest since cooperation with the researchers is key in order to: select and acquire content, design web interfaces, customize web sites, implement distant access. As a result of a partnership between LIS professionals and researchers, this article mix insider knowledge and external opinion.

Keywords: Scientific and technical information, Information portal, Digital Library, Scientific documentation

Fonction symbolique du juge et mise en scène médiatique : L’exemple du documentaire judiciaire

ARNAUD LUCIEN

Documentary as a “citizen media” contributes to the discovery of others and of the institutions. However the “staged” representation of the law and the Courts by the media might undermine the symbolic duty and authority of the judge. Documentary and the institutional mediation of law do not have a common purpose. The law being procedural by nature, it contradicts what the documentary has to offer, that is a moment of non-mediated reality. How best these two democratic features can interact raises a question: should cameras be allowed inside the sacred precincts of the Courts?

Keywords: “Dispositif”, Representation, Mediation, Staging, Documentary, Law, Courts

Du salon au cyberespace. La critique d’art face à la technologie

CLAIRE LEROUX

Art criticism, which had for centuries been based on judgment of good taste, came across cybernetic art in the fifties and has remained perplexed. Art critics, artists, curators and researchers have worked to create an original critical glossary which strives to describe the hybridization of man and machine. This new reference framework which was based on both technology and a fascination for thaumaturgy has shaped wide categories. In summary they are used to describe modernity: humanity welcoming technology in its core, fleetingness and uncertainty of the phenomenon, complexity of augmented reality. How these evolutions have revolutionized –or not– art criticism is discussed. They have nevertheless renewed it for they opened it to the current art of a society involved with the immateriality, invisibility and the nanoworld.

Keywords: Art criticism, Digital art, Hybridization, Contemporary art, Digital art criticism, ARNUM, IACA

Analyse de la réception des messages médiatiques. Récits rétrospectifs et verbalisations concomitantes

MARIE-PIERRE FOURQUET-COURBET ET DIDIER COURBET

Researchers know little about cognitive and emotional processes experienced by social individuals during exposure to the media. Since this lack is partly due to the insufficient development of methods to study the dynamics of individual reception, the aim of this paper is to contribute to fill this methodological gap. Two tracking methods of the processes are presented –retrospective account of reception and study of concurrent verbalized cognitions during reception– and each is illustrated by a case study (reception of the images of the September 11, 2001, New York terrorist attack; reception of a discourse in a context of political communication). Their theoretical and epistemological bases, the data collection procedures and the data analysis methods are disclosed and discussed. A comparative analysis helps to specify what conditions warrant the scientific validity and the good use of the two methods in order to study media communication reception.

Keywords: Reception, Cognition, Social cognition, Influence, Attitude, Episodic memory, Persuasion, Media, Political communication, September 11, 2001, New York terrorist attacks