Images of the Middle age in the city: “medievalising” sites
This analysis of a collection of images draws on the history of representations with a semio-pragmatic approach. Influence (imitation of, copy of, reference to …) and interpretation (from the monument to the document) are transforming monuments displayed on billboards, posters and all sort of touristic public places. They broadly allude to intertextuality (intericonicity). The study of signs of middle age architecture arranged as “historical settings” or suggesting “medievality” shows how representations are constructed by mediation. This communicational approach of monuments points in return to a “monumentary” conversion of documents illustrating medieval stereotypes.
Keywords: urban heritage, images of the middle age, signs of medievality, medieval stereotype, staging of public space of small medieval cities, touristic communication, “instrumentalisation” of heritage, monumentary-document
Creating an observatory: to represent what?
JOËLLE LE MAREC & FLORENCE BELAËN
Based on the study of the foundation of the recent Observatory for the Scientific and Technical Culture an Heritage (Observatoire du Patrimoine et de la Culture Scientifiques et Techniques—OPCST) Joëlle Le Marec and Florence Belaën conclude that observatories are based upon two self-contradicting features. They are meant to aswer to a general demand to increase the visibility of (cultural) actions. But as such they activate a plurality of ways to both generate and justify various forms of building up knowledge for the different stakeholders who participate in managing, supporting and overviewing them. This work revolves on the issue of the lack of visibility or rather on the statement of a need for more visibility. This is metaphorically linked to the idea that making the actors implement better tools makes them more knowledgeable and therefore makes for better observation.
Keywords: scientific culture, science and society, cooperation, evaluation, plurality of knowledge, indicators
Observing cities and urbanity
The program POPSU (Observation Platform for Urban Projects and Strategies) was started in 2004 by the Government to renew the knowledge on city-making and to co-produce knowledge at the local level. This analysis of its outline and features focus on two main issues. The first question is about how knowledge translate into action for all those who deal with the “urban matter” (policy makers, urban boards, technicians, experts and researchers). The other issue is about their reflexivity, how they have to continuously redefine their terms of action. Current large scale urban operations require the stakeholders to develop their skills. This is a sensitive issue in an environment where appropriate tools are lacking and deadlines are tight.
Keywords: urban project, translation, reflexivity, framework, urban stakeholders
Territorial observatories. A collective representation of a territory
MARIE HÉLÈNE DE SÈDE-MARCEAU & ALEXANDRE MOINE
Territorial observatories—oriented outcome of observing—are facing a dual challenge. They should produce a collective representation that is both understandable and operational and also have to cater for the inner complexity of the systems they describe. The authors’ proposal is to set clearer goals by positioning observation tools at the interface between reality and knowledge and focusing on the socio-cognitive aspects of observation and the technical set up of its implementation. This work then elaborates on the limits of this proposed methodology but also on its new perspectives—i.e. current observatories have became genuine tools for territorial intelligence.
Keywords: observation, knowledge, territory, governance, territorial intelligence
Project and observatory: an historical and pragmatical alliance
The words Project and Observatory are questioning each other and interacting in speech and actual practice in many fields of activity. Oddly this interaction is seldom questioned as if it were a matter of fact. The socio-technical conditions by which this interaction has emerged are explored in this work in order to understand its historical lineage and the current renewed interest in this matter. This analysis shows that the relationship project-observatory is devised for action to be visible and relies on new forms of institutionalisation of the scientific practice in the social environment.
Keywords: project, observatory, tool, governance, institutionalisation
Cultural participation on Internet: framework and infringing practices of the digitised heritage
NATHALIE CASEMAJOR LOUSTAU
Keywords: participation, heritage, development, Internet, appropriation, poaching
Is the “feature” a title or a text container? Even before it was part of the journalists’ vocabulary at the beginning of the 19th century the “title-feature” was a header for which was breaking down the news’ text in the gazettes. From their origin in the 17th century it was already structuring the paper-space while the “content-feature” was first used for the “sections” of Renaudot’s Gazette. At the end of the 17th century some gazettes offer richer content when newspapers and political journals emerge with the Revolution. Newspapers implement “feature systems” to juxtapose texts with different status and of various shapes. Features (title and/or content) and layout structure information to make reading easier.
Keywords: feature, “title-feature”, “content-feature”, “feature-system”, gazette, newspaper, new, Old Regime press, Revolution press